6.आऽ अंतमे प्रवसी मैथिलक हेतु अंग्रेजीमे
VIDEHA MITHILA TIRBHUKTI TIRHUT
Mithila includes `North Bihar’,’parts of Anga(south of Ganges), ‘Tarai’ and `Southern’ portion of the kingdom of Nepal inclusive of lower ranges of hills. The earlier reference to Videha is in Satapatha Brahmana’ ‘ Circa1000 B.C. Sadanira demarcated Videha from Kosala. Sadanira has been identified with the Budhi Gandak.Itcovers the modern districts of Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Champaran, Khagaria,Saharsa and parts of Purnea in India and those of Rohtara, Sarlahi, Mobitari, Saptari and Morang of Nepal.The Eastern boundary has been fluctuating with the changes in the course of river Kosi, the common boundary of the provinces of Mithila and Kamrup, the Ganga andthe Himalayas,the estates of Dinajpur,Koochbihar, Maldwara,Maldah, estates in Bangladesh,Rajmahal district of jharkhand and as far as Tejpur Pargana, the traditional grant of the kingdom of Mithila to Maharaja Mahesa Thakura by theMughal Emperor Akbar the District of Champaran, linguistically and culturally, been encroached by the Bhojpuri speaking people.On the other hand much of Monghyr and Bhagalpur Districts as lie to the south of Ganga river has been encroached by the Maithils. It has also crossed the Kosi and occupied Purnea,KoochBehar,Dinajpur,gidhhaur, badh etc. also habitations.goa also.
Kosi never been known to return eastwards to any of it deserted channels advancing westward
Rama had finished journey between the Sona and the Gangs before reaching Vaisali within a day only. It took Visvamitra along with Rama and Lakshmana, four days to reach the capital of the country Of Videha from Ayodhya. They rested on the way for one night only.’
In the Buddhist texts extended the conno¬
tation of Madhyadesa – the most sacred part of India- simply because they had to include in it the land par excellence of Buddhism, viz., Bodhgaya and Banaras. eastern boundary of Majjhimadcsa-Pundravardhana which in ancient times included Varendra’.’ (North Bengal). the Aitareya Brahmana’ boundary of Madhyadesa somewhere near Prayag. sage of Mithila, Yajnavalkya, in that country in which black antelope roams about,’ is that though Mithila was not included in the four ancient holy lands of Bharatavarsa-Brahmavarta, Brahmari.. sidesa, Madhyadesa and Aryarvarta. sanctity only from the fact pointed out by the Dharmasastra. Mithila was consistently regarded as an independant unit of the Pracyadesa. Praci, in ancient Tibetan works, excluded even Magadha, Kasi and Kosala but included Mithila and Vanga.The Puranas only in Brihad Vishnu Purana c. 5th cen. A.D., Mithila Mahatmaya ll Khamla Tirabhukti (a later name of the province) is described as` situated between the river Ganga and the Himalayas, extending over fifteen rivers and from Kosi (Kausiki, in the east) to the Gandaki in the west, for -24 yojanas and from Ganga to the forests of Himalayas for 16 Yojanas. The messengers sent by Janaka reached Dasaratha’s capital in three days by travelling very fast, while Dasaratha on his journey to the Videhan capital in his chariot took four days.Buddhist work Divyavadmra.those of Rohtara, Sarilahi, Mohitari, Saptari and Morang of subsequent movement of the Kosi.
The Brihacf-Vishnu Purana gives the following twelve names of Mithila.1Mithila2.Tairabhuktisca3.Vaidehi4.Naimikunanam5.Jnanaksetram6.kripaoitham7.svarnalai8.galapaddhati9.Janakijanmabhumischa10.nirapeksh11.vikalmasha12.Ramanandakuti viswabhavani nityamadgala. At first it seems that the whole province was called Videha and had several kingdoms in it, the chief ones being those of Mithila and Vaisali.Indeed, from the account in earlier literature it would seem that the chief city of the kingdom of Mithila, was Mithila. The name Videha appears to have lost vogue in the mediaeval times.Then came the name Tirabhukti 4th and 5th centuries A.D. The Basarh terracotta seals of the 4th century A.D. mention this name for the first time. It became very popular and its simplified form, Tirhut, is now used extensively, though, the name Mithila is now gradually gaining ground. ‘Tirhut’ also indicated at one time a Sirkar (a division of the Subah of Bihar) under Muslim rulers ; it comprised of a very large tract of Brilrad-Vishnu Purana Mithilakhanda : Milimla; Tirabhukti; Vaidehi; Naimikanarn the forest associated with the descendants of Mini; Jnanakehelram, Kripa-pitham-the home of knowledge and the centre of grace; Svarnalangalpaddhari-The footsteps of the gold plough; lanakijanmabhumi; Vihalmashn-Devoid of sins ; Ramanandakuri-the cottage of Sita’s Pleasure; Visvahharani-world pleasant; and Nityamangala-ever blissful.Britishers formed the modern division of Tirhut comprising the Districts of Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Champaran and Saran.’Videha’ is the earliest designation, probably derived from the name of the Vedic King Videgha Mathava who is said to have introduced the Agni into the lands beyond the river Sadanira. visit led to the cultivation and more habitation of the country, for we are told that previously the land was extremely marshy
and had to he dried.Mithila is not mentioned in the Vaidika or post-Vaidika Literature. The Ramavana and the Mahahharala, Dasakumaraehariia, Raghuvalnia Prasannargghara etc use it for the whole country. It is used most extensively in literature specially as the capital city of Videha or Tirabhukti province situated somewhere in the Tarai – modern Janak¬pur.Mithila is also called Miyulu in the Buddhist Annals. the origin of the name Mithila too in the title Mathava of this king, Mithi being reminiscent of it.In some Jataka accounts a city called Jayanta on the bank of the Gangas is spoken of as the capital of Videha. The Devi Bhogar’ata (Skandhe 6) wrongly located the city on the bank of the Ganga.The use of the appellation ‘Mithila’ along with ‘Tirabhukti’ or Tirhut for the whole country is comparatively very late-from about thef time of the installation of Karnata Dynasty in 1097 A.D. the Valmikiya Ramayana observes that the city of Mithila was founded by king Mithi. The most reasonable explanation of the origin of the name appears to be as given by the Unadi-sutras.Its authors derives it from ‘mantha’ (to churn). name of the capital city carne to be used for the whole kingdom.Tirabhukti or Tirhut nothing more than the Mithila and Vaisali king¬doms of older days. Tirabhukti is so called because it is regard as a land of three mythical sacrifices performed at the birth place of Sita, it extends up to the Tira or the bank of the Ganga, so it is called Tirabhuhti,two sides of the river Kausiki (the Kosi).This area is even today divided into two broad groups: Pachharari andPuvaripara.The extent of Mithila as given in the Brihad-Vislnur Puraua,are East to West 96 Kosas or 24 Yojanas, North to South 64 Kosas or I6 Yojanas. aha¬janaha Jataka as 300 Yojanas and about 10000 sq miles in the kingdomsof Nepal.work of King Nanyadeva on music-Sorasvatihridayakanthabharana.According to the Bhavishya Purana Nimi the son of Manu, king of Ayodhya frequented the land of sacrifices. His son Mithi founded a kingdom here which was named Mithila after his name. Being a ‘city builder’, he came to be known as ‘Jataka’.Geology looks further than History,scholars who have engaged themselves in the study of Ancient India have complety ignored Pre¬historic Mithila,watery nature of its land particularly because of its situation at the foot of the Himalayas and by the frequent changes in the courses of its numerous rivers and rivulets have made it difficult to collect materials in the field of pre-historic antiquities.marshy character of the land.Jalodbhara i.e. reclaimed from swamp.it was cultivated by the Brahmanas. who had caused agni, the Fire God, to taste it through sacrifices vast chain of temporary lakes, joined together by the numerous beds of hill streams Nepal to the Ganges. communications are open for only three or tour months of the year.The river side is so common that the expression `aadi dim ‘ is used by every one irrespective of age for going out for excreting wild animals used to roam about till recently, the long grass which grows in abundance in such a land all these give the picture of Mithila gradually coming out of water in the Cain-Ozoic Epoch.The story of the Avati ras is believed by a group of scholars to indicate the gradual stages of evolution, especially that of Vishnu as half-tortoise and half-fish. We have in Mithila, in the first instance the famous Varaha¬kshetra Tirtha which map indicate the evolution of man through the stage of a boar; and then there is a Pauranic story of the birth of Narakasura by the Union of Vishnu and Varaha. This may indicate in some form, the knowledge or existence of the evolution of the primitive man from half-animals and half-man in Mithila-^ Of the ages that followed the age of sub-men or primitive men, the remains are so scanty in India that much cannot be said about any region, especially that of Mithila, which has been so far practically has remained wholly unexplored.
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