VIDEHA

विदेह वर्ष-1मास-1अंक-2 (15.01.2008)13.आऽ अंतमे प्रवासी मैथिलक हेतु अंग्रेजीमे VIDEHA MITHILA TIRBHUKTI TIRHUT(आगाँ)

In कविता, कोष, पञ्जी, पद्य, मैथिली, रचना, विदेह, व्यंग्य, संस्कृत, maithili, music, samskrit, sanskrit, videha on जुलाई 21, 2008 at 3:12 अपराह्न

13.आऽ अंतमे प्रवासी मैथिलक हेतु अंग्रेजीमे
VIDEHA MITHILA TIRBHUKTI TIRHUT(आगाँ)
Of the ages that followed the age of sub-men or primitive men, the remains are so scanty in India that much cannot be said about any region, especially that of Mithila, which has been so far practically remained wholly unexplored.
There is a great paucity of material to eliminate the `Pre-Vedic’ inhabitants of Mithila.The various types of skulls that were discovered at the site near Darbhanga Railway Station, which is called ‘Harahi’, (i.e. the site of bones), remained unclassified and unstudied.There is a pond there, in the name of ‘Harahi’.All that is possible in the present state of our knowledge is to took forward to the study of some apparently primitive castes and tribes of Mithila. As early as the 5th century AD,several tribes made up the Vajjian Confederacy and one of the most important of them was ‘Lichchhavis’, who was held for a long time to be of foreign stock. The names of other important ones are mentioned in the Jyotirisvara’s Varnaratnakara. They are Tatama, Dhanukha, Goara, Khatbe, Amata etc.

In the earlier part of Satapatha Brdhmana it is mentioned that King Videgh Mathawa carried Agni in his mouth and he moved from Saraswati, in the Punjab, where the king dwelt),to Sadanira, drying up all the rivers. He did not, however, burnt Sadanira. The Brahmanas did not cross it,therefore, thinking it has not been burnt over by Agni Vaisvanar.But when Mathava reached the Sadanira,he asked the Agni where will be his dwelling and the reply was that he should live to the East of Sadanira.However it is fact that Ayodhya and Videha were long united and their Kings were of the same tree. It might mean that the reformed Brahmanism passed from the Bharata Kingdom to Ayodhya and then to Videha.The Videha country received Vedic culture long before the trine of the compilation of this Brahamana.In Brihaddrapyaka Upanishad which forms a
part of the Satapatha Brahmana Samrat Janaka is mentioned as a great patron of Vedic culture and it is said that the Videha Brahmanas were superior to the Kuru
Panchalas in the Upanishadic phase of the development of vedic culture.The vedic(Aryan) culture has taken its root long before the Brahmana age, most probably in the early
Samhita age of the Rigveda.The Yajurveda Samhita mentions the famous cows of Videha. The Vedic sites were unknown to the inhabitants of Mithila. Mathava Videgha’s priest Gautama Rahugana is credited in the Satapatha Brahmana with the discovery of the Mitravinda sacrifice which is further said to have been revived by Emperor Janaka through Yajnaavalkya.Besides, earlier still, Nami Sapya, King of Videha (Vaideha-Raja) is held up as a memorable example of a monarch who successfully performed elaborate sacrifices and thereby reached heaven. As the name of this King appears in several passages in the Rigveda,very early period in the development of Vedic Culture in India.Rig Veda1.53,7 says that Nami was the friend and associate of Indra in quarelling the Asura Naaiuci,in the fight with Namuci Indra protected Nami Sapya.The priest Gautama Rahugana is one of the important Rishi in Rigved.

It may be noted that the Brahmanic culture must have made a very rapid progress In the country to justify its description in the latter part of the Satapatha Brahmana as the centre of intellectual activity of the age.The Mahdbharata attests that the Vedic lore was as popular in the East as anywhere else.In the Shanti Parva and in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the authorship of Sukla Yajurveda is ascribed in clear terms to Yajnavalkya Vajasaneya, who belonged to Mithila.

From a perusal of all these things it becomes clear that Mithila figures prominently in Ancient History from the very beginning of the Vedic period. Mithila was visited by Videgha Mathava and his followers and probably, its

marshes and jungles were cleared, and its soil was cultivated and a great and powerful kingdom was founded.Vedic Mithila knew other kings too, such as, Nami Sapya (Rigveda
1.53 .7) and Par Ahlara. Nimi Vaideha, who IS reported in certain Puranas to have founded this line of Kings in Mithila, is perhaps a later name of the king of Kings.At any rate,
Videgha Mathava should be regarded as the earliest known King, if not the founder, of the Videha kingdom and of the
line of Vaideha Janaka. In course of time it seems that a

confederacy of kindered peoples known as the Kosala Videha, occupying a position no less important than that of the Kuru Panchalas, grow up at the time of the Redaction of the Brahmana.The Kingdom thus founded by the Vedic Mathava was in course of time ruled by the Vedic Samrat Janaka the contemporary of Aruni and Yajnavalkya, and Ashvapati, a king of the Kekayas. Majajanaka II,12th century BC,’s court was adored with the philosophers of Kosala and Kuru-Panchala such as Ashvala, Jaratkarava-Arthabhoga, Bujjya Lahyayanani, Vshasta Chakrayana Kahoda,Kausi-takeya, Gargi Vachakuari, Uddalaka Aruni and Videgha Sakalaya¬ Yajfvalkya Vajaseneya, who was a pupil of Uddalaka Aruni. In the Mahabharata the Mithila King is said to have sided with the Duryodhana because he had learnt the science of fighting with mace from the latter. Bhima and Karna are said to have conqured Mithila. One Karala Janak made a lascivious attempt on a Brahmin maiden leading to the overthrow of the monarchy and that was followed by the rise of a republic, the Vajjian confederacy.The Mahabharata and Ramauyana mentions a great battle between Pratardana, King of Kasi Janaka King of Mithila.The Vajjian confede¬racy, were the offsprings of a queen of Kasi.

The Videha ended on the west by the Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur andVaishali districts, on the east by the Kosi and the Mahananda rivers in the south by the Ganges and on the north by the lower ridges of the Himalayas. It includes the following areas¬-North Bihar excluding the Saran region and the Champaran-Muzaffarpur region,i.e,theMadhubani,DarbhangaSamastipur districts, the Begusarai district and Araria sub-district,the Saharsa district,the npart of the Bhagalpur district,Khagaria district and the Purnea and Katihar and the Nepalese Terai contiguous with the northernmost parts of the Madhubani, Saharsa and Purnea. The ancient most name for this region available in litera¬ture is Videha.It is possible that a small tract of the Sitamarhi district might have formed part of the state of Videha and not of Vaisali during the reign of Siradhwaja Janaka.The tribe which inhabited the area east of the Gandaka,the Videhan state with its capital at Mithila usually identified with Janakpur in the Nepalese Terai situated at a distance of 14 miles from Jaynagar Railway Station on the Indo-Nepal border and Videha as a geographical term which included the Vaisali state also, along with the Videha state within its borders. It was in this last sense that Kundgrama-near Vaisali, the birthplace of Mahavira, is placed in Videha and that the mothers of Mahavira and Ajatasatru, which were the sister and daughter respectively of Chetaka, the Lichchhavi leader cf Vaisali, are called Videhadatta and Vedehi respectively.There is no controversy whatsoever with regard to its northern and southern frontiers. The Sadanira river acted as the boundary between Videha or Vaisali and its western neighbour Kosala but its identification has been a matter of some dispute. It is identified by the Indian lexicographers with the Karatoyas modern Kurate which flows through the Bogra district in Bangladesh but this seems to be too far east. On the ground that the Mahabharata distinguishes the Gandaki from the Sadanira, it is held that the Sadanira was the Rapti. But it is the Gandaki-the Kondo-chates of the Greek geographers. The Sadanira flows from the northern Himalaya mountains and formed the boundary bet-ween Kosala and Videha and its waters are never exhausted.From the bank of the Great Gandak to the forest of Champa the country is called Videha, also known as Tirabhukti. This name is found some of the Basarh seals as one of the provinces of the Gupta empire. Purnea seems to have been the easternmost district of Videha or Tirabhukti and in that case the Kosi or Mahananda would naturally form the boundary between Videha and Pundra.The ancient kingdom of Anga does not seem to have extended north of the Ganges, because there is no clear indication of this in ancient literature. The forest in which Rishyasringa son of Kasyapa Vibhapdaka, lived is said to have bordered on Anga, and the whole of this quaint story thatRishyasringa being beguiled by the courtesans of Malini into a boat and brought down the river to the capital of Anga implies that he was living within the territory of Anga, for no embassage was sent to any other king for permission to bring him away, as when Dasratha paid a special visit to Lomapada to invite the Rishi’s attendance at Ayodhya to perform the sacrifice which was to bless the king with a son.The Epics has no reference to the effect that Rishyasringa’s hermitage lay in Anga.It was situated on the Kosi river near some mountain. Dasaratha’s visit was necessitated by the fact that Rishyasringa happened to he the son-in-law of the Anga king and not be¬cause he was living within the territory of Anga.The Kausiki is one of the most ancient rivers of India It is frequently mentioned in the Epics and the Puranas. It has ever been a shifting river,its playground being the area between the river Mahananda in the district of Purnea on the east and the river Balan in the old district of Darbhanga on the west. Kosi in some remote period joined the Mahananda through the river Panar also called the Parman near Araria. The belief of the local people is that at some bygone time the Kosi used to flow along the course of the Panar this river, the Panar also in its short course through the Nepalese territory is called the Burhi(old) Kosi.The Buddhist conception of Videha differ from the above because the Buddhists mention Vajji and Videha as two distinct geographical and political entities.But sometimes they inter-change Vaisali and Videha.Ajatashatru, son of a Vaisali princess, is called Vaidehiputra in Buddhist literatureThe Taitariya Samhita of Yajurveda mentions the cows of videha as famous in India in the Vedic times.The commentator of the Taitariya Samhita explains the adjective Vaidehyah-plural of Vaidehi by vishishta dehasambandhinyah-having splendid bodies the portion translated by Keith is-Indra slew Vritra,from the head of Vritra came out cows, they were of Videha, behind them came the bull.Apparently cows of Videha were especially famous.The regular genealogy of the Janaka dynasty of Videha does not go beyond the Mahabharata War.Nimi Videha was the founder of the Videhan state and its capital town called Jayanta and his son Mithi Janaka Vaideha as that of Mithila city.The co-operation of Gautama-a priestly dynasty, was readily available to the family. It appears Jayanta was soon abandoned in favour of a more strategic place, Mithila.The Puranas mention Jayanta and Mithila, as the early and later capitals of Videha. The Buddhist literature does not know Jayanta but speaks of Mithila only. The Tripitaka commentaries state that Videharattha was colonised by the inhabitants who were brought by king Mandhata from Pubbavideha, the eastern sub-continent of Asia, placed to theeast of Mount Sumeru. This Mandhata, who was at Rajagriha.The Buddhist tradition provided in the Digha,the division of India among the sons of Manu says that this country was divided into seven political units and Renu, son of Disampati, was allotted Mithila in the country of the Videhas.Mithila was founded by Mahagovinda, the steward of king Renu. Disampati and Renu were kings or chieftains in Banaras or king of the Kurus are referred to, apparently as kings of Banaras, at Dipavamsa.The Videhan state was founded by Nimi Videha, son of Ikshvaku, who also founded a town called Jayanta. He dwelt in a town famed as Vaijayanta or Jayanta. This town was situated near the ashrama of Gautama and also near the Himavat mountain. Nimi instituted a sacrifice that was to last for a thousand years and requested Vasishtha to preside. Vasishtha said that he had already been engaged by Indra in a sacrifice which would last for five hundred years and asked him to wait for the period. Nimi in the meantime employed Gautama and other Rishis for his sacrifice.On the completion of the sacrifice of Indra Vasishtha hastened to Nimi but found Gautama and others.He cursed Nimi that henceforth be body-less (vi-deha).Nimi cursed Vasishtha in return and both abandoned their human bodies.Nimi’s dead body was preserved in oil and scents till the completion of the sacrifice. The sages then agitated his body and consequently a boy was born, who was called Janaka because of being self-born, Videha because of being Mini Videha’s son and Mithi because of his birth from agitation-manth- to churn.A great sacrifice of the glorious Nimi, the king of the Videhas, is referred to in the Bhagavata.The Vedic texts know of a king of Videha Nam Sapya, is nowhere indicated as the founder of the Videhan royal family¬.Nimi has been mentioned at several places in the Mahabharata, but generally his territory is not stated. At one place he has been called a Vaideha which removes the doubt with regard to his territory. There it is stated that he gave his kingdom to the Brahmanas. The Videhan dynasty, being a branch of the Ikshvakus, is called the solar dynasty who did not eat meat during the month of Kartika. We are not quite sure if this Nimi is the first king of the dynasty or the penultimate sovereign, who is frequently mentioned in Buddhist literature. Sadanira,she that is always filled with water which is more probably the Gandaki. Agni Vaisvanara,the fire that burns for all men,fire which is the common property of all men,not sacrificial fire, but fire in its ordinary everyday use applied to human wants. The primeval forests from the Sarasvati to the Sadanira, and there the course ¬of the colonising Aryas stopped until Mathava carried Agni to the east of the latter river. If Agni Vaisvanara went burning along the earth from the Sarasvati to Videha,Agni burnt over the Paurava territory-including North Panchala and the Ayodhya realm, two of the most famous and best cultivated regions even in early times-which is absurd. If itenshrines any historical truth it might mean that the reformed Brahmanism passed from the Bharata kingdom to Ayodhya and then to Videha. The Videha ended on the west by the Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur andVaishali districts, on the east by the Kosi and the Mahananda rivers in the south by the Ganges and on the north by the lower ridges of the Himalayas. It includes the following areas¬-North Bihar excluding the Saran region and the Champaran-Muzaffarpur region,i.e,theMadhubani,DarbhangaSamastipur districts, the Begusarai district and Araria sub-district,the Saharsa district,the npart of the Bhagalpur district,Khagaria district and the Purnea and Katihar and the Nepalese Terai contiguous with the northernmost parts of the Madhubani, Saharsa and Purnea. The ancient most name for this region available in litera¬ture is Videha.It is possible that a small tract of the Sitamarhi district might have formed part of the state of Videha and not of Vaisali during the reign of Siradhwaja Janaka.The tribe which inhabited the area east of the Gandaka,the Videhan state with its capital at Mithila usually identified with Janakpur in the Nepalese Terai situated at a distance of 14 miles from Jaynagar Railway Station on the Indo-Nepal border and Videha as a geographical term which included the Vaisali state also, along with the Videha state within its borders. It was in this last sense that Kundgrama-near Vaisali, the birthplace of Mahavira, is placed in Videha and that the mothers of Mahavira and Ajatasatru, which were the sister and daughter respectively of Chetaka, the Lichchhavi leader cf Vaisali, are called Videhadatta and Vedehi respectively.There is no controversy whatsoever with regard to its northern and southern frontiers. The Sadanira river acted as the boundary between Videha or Vaisali and its western neighbour Kosala but its identification has been a matter of some dispute. It is identified by the Indian lexicographers with the Karatoyas modern Kurate which flows through the Bogra district in Bangladesh but this seems to be too far east. On the ground that the Mahabharata distinguishes the Gandaki from the Sadanira, it is held that the Sadanira was the Rapti. But it is the Gandaki-the Kondo-chates of the Greek geographers. The Sadanira flows from the northern Himalaya mountains and formed the boundary bet-ween Kosala and Videha and its waters are never exhausted.From the bank of the Great Gandak to the forest of Champa the country is called Videha, also known as Tirabhukti. This name is found some of the Basarh seals as one of the provinces of the Gupta empire. Purnea seems to have been the easternmost district of Videha or Tirabhukti and in that case the Kosi or Mahananda would naturally form the boundary between Videha and Pundra.The ancient kingdom of Anga does not seem to have extended north of the Ganges, because there is no clear indication of this in ancient literature. The forest in which Rishyasringa son of Kasyapa Vibhapdaka, lived is said to have bordered on Anga, and the whole of this quaint story thatRishyasringa being beguiled by the courtesans of Malini into a boat and brought down the river to the capital of Anga implies that he was living within the territory of Anga, for no embassage was sent to any other king for permission to bring him away, as when Dasratha paid a special visit to Lomapada to invite the Rishi’s attendance at Ayodhya to perform the sacrifice which was to bless the king with a son.The Epics has no reference to the effect that Rishyasringa’s hermitage lay in Anga.It was situated on the Kosi river near some mountain. Dasaratha’s visit was necessitated by the fact that Rishyasringa happened to he the son-in-law of the Anga king and not be¬cause he was living within the territory of Anga.The Kausiki is one of the most ancient rivers of India It is frequently mentioned in the Epics and the Puranas. It has ever been a shifting river,its playground being the area between the river Mahananda in the district of Purnea on the east and the river Balan in the old district of Darbhanga on the west. Kosi in some remote period joined the Mahananda through the river Panar also called the Parman near Araria. The belief of the local people is that at some bygone time the Kosi used to flow along the course of the Panar this river, the Panar also in its short course through the Nepalese territory is called the Burhi(old) Kosi.The Buddhist conception of Videha differ from the above because the Buddhists mention Vajji and Videha as two distinct geographical and political entities.But sometimes they inter-change Vaisali and Videha.Ajatashatru, son of a Vaisali princess, is called Vaidehiputra in Buddhist literatureThe Taitariya Samhita of Yajurveda mentions the cows of videha as famous in India in the Vedic times.The commentator of the Taitariya Samhita explains the adjective Vaidehyah-plural of Vaidehi by vishishta dehasambandhinyah-having splendid bodies the portion translated by Keith is-Indra slew Vritra,from the head of Vritra came out cows, they were of Videha, behind them came the bull.Apparently cows of Videha were especially famous.The regular genealogy of the Janaka dynasty of Videha does not go beyond the Mahabharata War.Nimi Videha was the founder of the Videhan state and its capital town called Jayanta and his son Mithi Janaka Vaideha as that of Mithila city.The co-operation of Gautama-a priestly dynasty, was readily available to the family. It appears Jayanta was soon abandoned in favour of a more strategic place, Mithila.The Puranas mention Jayanta and Mithila, as the early and later capitals of Videha. The Buddhist literature does not know Jayanta but speaks of Mithila only. The Tripitaka commentaries state that Videharattha was colonised by the inhabitants who were brought by king Mandhata from Pubbavideha, the eastern sub-continent of Asia, placed to theeast of Mount Sumeru. This Mandhata, who was at Rajagriha.The Buddhist tradition provided in the Digha,the division of India among the sons of Manu says that this country was divided into seven political units and Renu, son of Disampati, was allotted Mithila in the country of the Videhas.Mithila was founded by Mahagovinda, the steward of king Renu. Disampati and Renu were kings or chieftains in Banaras or king of the Kurus are referred to, apparently as kings of Banaras, at Dipavamsa.The Videhan state was founded by Nimi Videha, son of Ikshvaku, who also founded a town called Jayanta. He dwelt in a town famed as Vaijayanta or Jayanta. This town was situated near the ashrama of Gautama and also near the Himavat mountain. Nimi instituted a sacrifice that was to last for a thousand years and requested Vasishtha to preside. Vasishtha said that he had already been engaged by Indra in a sacrifice which would last for five hundred years and asked him to wait for the period. Nimi in the meantime employed Gautama and other Rishis for his sacrifice.On the completion of the sacrifice of Indra Vasishtha hastened to Nimi but found Gautama and others.He cursed Nimi that henceforth be body-less (vi-deha).Nimi cursed Vasishtha in return and both abandoned their human bodies.Nimi’s dead body was preserved in oil and scents till the completion of the sacrifice. The sages then agitated his body and consequently a boy was born, who was called Janaka because of being self-born, Videha because of being Mini Videha’s son and Mithi because of his birth from agitation-manth- to churn.A great sacrifice of the glorious Nimi, the king of the Videhas, is referred to in the Bhagavata.The Vedic texts know of a king of Videha Nam Sapya, is nowhere indicated as the founder of the Videhan royal family¬.Nimi has been mentioned at several places in the Mahabharata, but generally his territory is not stated. At one place he has been called a Vaideha which removes the doubt with regard to his territory. There it is stated that he gave his kingdom to the Brahmanas. The Videhan dynasty, being a branch of the Ikshvakus, is called the solar dynasty who did not eat meat during the month of Kartika. We are not quite sure if this Nimi is the first king of the dynasty or the penultimate sovereign, who is frequently mentioned in Buddhist literature. Sadanira,she that is always filled with water is more probably the Gandaki. Agni Vaisvanara,the fire that burns for all men,fire which is the common property of all men,not sacrificial fire, but fire in its ordinary everyday use applied to human wants. The primeval forests from the Sarasvati to the Sadanira, and there the course ¬of the colonising Aryas stopped until Mathava carried Agni to the east of the latter river. If Agni Vaisvanara went burning along the earth from the Sarasvati to Videha,Agni burnt over the Paurava territory-including North Panchala and the Ayodhya realm, two of the most famous and best cultivated regions even in early times-which is absurd. The reformed Brahmanism passed from the Bharata kingdom to Ayodhya and then to Videha.Videgha Mathava, who led the Aryans from the Sarasvatt to colonise Mithila, and his great priest Gautama Rahugana wandered through the northern Himalayan regions till they came to the upper reaches of the river Gandak, and laid the foundation of the Mithila kingdom to the north of what formed the kingdom of Vaisali. Sadanira flowing from the northern mountain also indicates that the people coming might have passed through an area from which it could see clearly that the river came from the northern mountain. Moreover, there are places in the northern part of the Champaran region, Jankigarh eleven miles to the north of Lauriya Nandangarh-which are associated with the rule of the Janaka dynasty. This tradition may lend support to the supposition that Videgha Mathava might have proceeded to Videha through this region.The word Janaka has a reference to the tribe, jana and the best or the leader of the janas was called Janaka. Thus Videgha Mathava, who led the party, might be called a Janaka.In the Buddhist tradition the founder of the royal line of Videha is Makhadeva who is represented as the king of Mithila. For successive periods of 84000 years each he had respectively amused himself as prince, ruled as viceroy and reigned as king. He one day asked his barber to tell him as soon as he had any grey hairs. When many years later the barber found a grey hair, he pulled it out and laid it on the king’s palm as he had been requested. The king had 84000 years yet to live, but he granted the barber a village yielding one hundred thousand and on that very day gave over the kingdom to his son and renounced the world as though he had seen the king of Death. For 84000 years he lived as a recluse in the Makhadeva-amhavana, and was reborn in the Brahma-world. Although the figure 84000 is merely conven¬tional and has no significance, the story is inclined towards asceticism.The scene of the finding of a grey hair is marvellously sculptured on a railing of the Bharhut stupa. In this scene Maghadeva or Mahadeva,king of Videha, is upset at the sight of a grey hair picked up from his head and resigns his kingdom in favour of his eldest son. He is seated on a throne that resembles one of the modern fashionable chairs. His face is clean shaven. The prince stands gently before him. The barber stands behind him with his shav¬ing pot. The Buddhist tradition calls Makha¬deva founder of the royal line but his capital is said to be Mithila. Makhadeva founded Jayanta and made a beginning of the foundation of another town later called Mithila. The Vedic tradition furnished by the Satapatha Brahmana the identification of the first Videhan king of the Puranas with the first Videhan king of the Vedic account is proved by a fact that Gotama is the priest of that king in both the accounts. The only apparent difference between the accounts is the one concerning the name of the first Videhan king, the Puranas call him Nimi, the Satapatha-Brahmana calls him Mathava. But the name given in the Satapatha¬ Brahmana is clearly a patronym, meaning son of Mathu. Thus, while the Puranas call the king by his proper name, the Satapatha-Brahmana calls him by his patronym. The surname of the king is the same in both the accounts- Videha in the Puranas and its Vedic form Videgha in the Satapatha Brahmana. Nimi, the founder of the Videha dynasty was not a son but a descendant of Ikshvaku. Nimi was a contemporary of the ¬rishi Gotama, near whose hermitage he built a city named Jayanta. As no rishi of the name of Gotama is ever included by the Puranas among those primaeval sages who were the contemporaries cf Manu and his sons, Nimi, the contemporary of Gotama, could not have been a son of¬Ikshvaku. Thus, the identification of the first Videhan king of the Puranas (Nimi Videha) with the first Videhan king of the¬Vedic account (Videgha Mathava) is proved by the fact that Gotama is the priest of that king in both the accounts.No Videha king is ever mentioned in the Puranas in connection with any early person or event,. which means that the Videha dynasty did not exist in early times, and so could not have been founded by Ikshvaku’s son.The list of the Videha kings itself lends support to this.This list gives some 51 names. The certain point where a synchronism exists is the reign of Siradhvaja, who was a contemporary of Dasaratha. The Puranas give the account of only three dynasties.The certain descendants of Trasadasyu mentioned in the Rigveda, such as Mitratithi, Kuru Sravana and Iipama. It was Bhagiratha who left his ances¬tral kingdom on the western confines of the Punjab and march¬ing hundreds of miles with his army and other subjects, reached the river Ganga, which he gave the name of Bhagtrathi. To the east of the Ganga he founded a kingdom named Kosala with its capital at Ayodhya on the bank of the Sarayu, a tributary of the Ganga. The Sarayu and the Gomati , two of the chief rivers of Kosala, were named after the tributaries of the river Sindhu. The conquest of the Gangetic territory of Kosala by Bhagiratha was soon followed by the conquest of the region to its east by another prince of the Ikshvaku family named Nimi Mathava. Mathava belonged to that branch of the Ikshvakus that had earlier settled on the banks of the Saraswati. He left the Sarasvati river and accompanied by his priest Gotama Rahugana crossed the river Sadanira and colonised Videha. Gotama built an ashrama in this country and Nimi founded a town named Jayanta near that ashrama. Nimi was succeeded by Mithi Janaka who founded the city of Mithila that became the capital of Videha. Some twelve generations after Bhagiratha of Kosala and Nimi Mathava of Videha, an Ikshvaku prince named Visala, who was a scion of either the Kosala or the Videha dynasty found¬ a new kingdom in the vicinity of Videha. This kingdom was named Vaisali after its capital, which was founded by and named after Visala.Mithi Janaka was the son of Nimi Videha. The Bhagavata¬ Purana calls him Mithila instead of Mithi. The Garuda Purana, though it gives the genealogy of Videha kings, does not
mention Mithi because due to the loss of some verses closing the Ikshvaku dynasty of Ayodhya and introducing the Videhan line. Prasuilruta-a king of Ayodhya father of Udavasu-Vlithi’s son- of the Videhan line. The Ramayana makes Mithi Janaka two kings.Mithi, being son of Nimi Videha, is also known as Vaideha.
Mithi is celebrated as the founder of Mithila. Jayanta founded by Nimi did not prove to be a good capital and need was felt to proceed further north. Mithila is identified with modern Janakpur in the Nepalese Terai. It is regarded as a sacred spot by the Hindus and is visited by many pilgrims every year. It is rather strange that while in other kingdoms capitals were generally founded on the banks of the rivers. Mithi estab¬lished his capital at Janakpur in the Nepalese Terai, so close to the Himalayan mountains.The plain area of the old Muzaffarpur district had already been seized by the state of Vaisali founded by the son of Manu. So the Videhan state, founded by Manu’s grandson and strengthened by his great grandson Mithi, might establish its capital either in the old Darbhanga district, which must have been very marshy at that time or in the sub Himalayan area. The hilly tribes must have been very turbulent and hence it might have been considered expedient to have the capital there. An adjective meaning valorous was used for Mithi in two Puranas may have a reference to the defeat of the hill tribes. The Himalayan area was consi¬dered particularly sacred from the point of view of asceticism or performance of rites. Janaka got instruction from Chyavana Bhargava. We do not find any direct or even indirect details about the successors of Mithi Janaka till we come to the time of Sira¬dhvaja and his brother Kusadhvaja.Udavasu he was the son and successor of Mithi Janaka.Nandivardhana was the son and successor of Udavasu.He is called pious by two Puranas and the Ramayana.Suketu was the son and successor of Nandivardhana and is called chivalrous and pious.
He was the son and successor of Suketu and is called pious and very strong and a royal sage.The ancient kings, who were called or said to have become Indras only held or usurped the position of High Priest of the tribe or realm, in addition to that of king e.g.the Devaraj and Dharmaraj of Bhutan, its High Priest and Chief Judge. The Epic-Puranic tradition knows of one Videha and one Ikshvaku king as Devaraja, and one Vasishtha with the same designation.One of the known achievements of Devaraja was his getting a bow from the gods who had received it from Shiva.This was the bow used by Siva after the destruction of the sacrifice of Daksha. It was a remarkable thing and continued in the family of the Janakas as a glorious heri¬tage. It was in the time of Siradhvaja Janaka that it was broken by Rama.Brihadratha, the Videhan king, was a contemporary of king Mandhatri of Ayodhya . One Janaka Daivarati of Mithila got instruction from Yajnavalkya. He was probably different from Brihaduktha, son, of Devarata.He is called Mahavirya by the Puranas. He is said to be valorous. One Janaka Daiv¬arati is mentioned in the Mahabharata the management of whose father’s sacrifice was taken by Yajnavalkya. He seems to have flourished after the Bharata War.
Dhrishtaketu is stated to be pious.,a defeater of foes and a royal sage.An ancient king named Dhrishtaketu is mentioned in the Mahabhrarata, but his territory is not given. Haryaswva is known to all our sources and is the first ruler of Videha whose name contains a synonym of horse.Suketu -a good banner and Brihadratha-a large charioteer.The Mahabharata states that Rama Jamadagnya defeated and killed many tribes, the Videhas being one of them. If this tradition has any basis in fact, it may mean that the king of Videha was defeated by Rama Jamadagnya. The Videhan king defeated might have been Haryasva or his predecessor Dhrishtaketa. The Mahahharatas refers to a battle between Janaka Maithila and Pratardana. In this battle the warriors of Mithila were victorious. The kingdom of Pratardana is not indicated here. But the Mahabharata men¬tions him at two other places as the king of Kasi.The Janaka Maithila who had an encounter with Pratardana might have been Pratindhaka. Maharoman is the first of the threee successive kings who bore names ending in roman. He is said to be learned.Svarnaroman is said to be pious and a royal sage. Hrasvaroman, the last of the three successive kings who bore names ending in roman is said to be a knower or piety and one possessing a great soul. He had two sons and Kusadhvaja.Siradhvaj to Sakuni was the expansionist phase of the Videhan kingdom. Sankasya was annexed and a branch line of Videha was established there which is said to have ruled for four generations. After Sumati, a contemporary of Stradhvaja Janaka, we do not hear of Vaisali, Videha’s western neighbour the Vaisali state was absorbed by kingdom.Another feature is that with Siradhvaja begins an age in Videhan history in which the names of sovereigns are better preserved.

Siradhvaja is a famous king of Videha for several reasons. His adopted daughter, Sita, was married to Rama.

(continued)

14.A Moonless Summer Night Of My Village
-Jyoti Jha Chaudhary, London, U.K.

Lights of the thousands of stars
Don’t seem enough for such a night
You miss the moon badly
Who can make the night bright.

Without proper transportation
Without supply of electricity.
Life here is so different
Deprived of city-like facility.

A moonless night of summer,
Is not a piece of cake
If you’re going for a hike
Don’t panic if you encounter a snake.

Among the sounds of toads and cockroaches
When one sound appears different
Do you need your Grand’ma to confirm you
This is the sound of a serpent.

My Village
Jyoti Jha Chaudhary, London, U.K.

Great is my pleasure
When come holidays
I with my family,
Along the home way,
Reach our native village
After travelling a day.
The Sun is same there
But different is its ray
Which, creates so lovely feelings
Making us happy always.

-सिद्धिरस्तु-

© सर्वाधिकार लेखकाधीन आ’ जतय लेखकक नाम नहि अछि ततय संपादकाधीन। विदेह (पाक्षिक) संपादक-गजेन्द्र ठाकुर। एतय प्रकाशित रचना सभक कॉपीराइट लेखक लोकनिक लगमे रहतन्हि, मात्र एकर प्रथम प्रकाशनक अधिकार एहि ई-पत्रिकाकेँ छैक।रचनाकार अप्पन मौलिक आ, अप्रकाशित रचना सभ(जकर मौलिकताक संपूर्ण उत्तरदायित्व लेखकगणक मध्य छन्हि) ggajendra@yahoo.co.in केँ मेल अटैचमेण्टक रूपमे .doc, .txt किंवा .pdf फॉर्मेटमे पठाय सकैत छथि।रचनाक संग रचनाकार अप्पन संक्षिप्त परिचय(बायोडाटा) आ’ अप्पन स्कैन कएल गेल फोटो पठेताह से आशा करैत छी। रचनाक संग ई घोषणा रहय-जे ई रचना मौलिक अछि आ’ पहिल प्रकाशनक हेतु विदेह(पाक्षिक)-ई-पत्रिकाकेँ देल जा रहल अछि।मेल प्राप्त होयबाक बाद यथासंभव शीघ्रतासँ (सात दिनमे) एकर प्रकाशनक अंकक सूचना देल जायत।

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